As early as 1662, Pascal discovered the possibility of […]
As early as 1662, Pascal discovered the possibility of using liquids to generate great power. In 1795, the British Bramah obtained the patent for the first manual hydraulic press, but the development history of the real hydraulic press was less than 200 years.
With the development of Western capitalism, the invention of the steam engine triggered a revolution in industrial production, and modern large-scale industry gradually replaced the handicraft industry. The forging process with a long history has gradually changed from manual forging to machine forging. At the beginning of the 16th century, the first hydraulic mechanical hammers appeared. In 1839, the first steam hammer appeared. Since then, with the rapid development of the machinery manufacturing industry, the size of forgings has become larger and larger, and the weight of the forging hammer has exceeded 100t. Such a heavy forging hammer is difficult to operate and has huge vibration, which brings many problems. From 1859 to 1961, the first batch of hydraulic presses of 7000kN, 10000kN and 12000kN for metal processing began to be produced in the Vienna Railway Factory.
In 184, the forging hydraulic press for forging steel ingots was first used in Manchester, England. Compared with forging hammers, it has many advantages. The moving part does not have to be so heavy and the vibration is small, so it develops quickly. It was not until 1893 that the largest forging hydraulic press of 120 MN was built at the time. The forging work of large steel ingots gradually shifted from using forging hammers to forging hydraulic presses. The heavy forgings weighing dozens of tons and hundreds of tons were removed one after another. For the hammer, only free forging hammers of 5t and below are retained.
From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, capitalism developed to the stage of imperialism. The export of capital, outward expansion, competition for colonies, and division of the world became the main content of imperialism. Due to the need for arms expansion, forging and die forging hydraulic presses have developed rapidly. In 1934, Germany manufactured a 70,000kN die forging hydraulic press; in 1938"-1944, in order to launch the Second World War, Germany successively built three 150MN forging hydraulic presses and a 300MN large die forging hydraulic press.
After the Second World War, in order to rapidly develop the aviation industry and the need to develop the aerospace industry later, the United States successively manufactured two 315MN and two 455MN large-scale die forging hydraulic presses around 1955. From the mid-1950s to the early 1960s, the Soviet Union built several 300MN die forging hydraulic presses and the world's largest 750MN die forging hydraulic press. In addition, various large-scale die forging hydraulic presses ranging from 200 to 300 MN have been built successively in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.
The development of hydraulic press has been widely used in various sectors of the national economy, with various types and rapid development, and has become an important part of the machine tool industry.
In our country, the development of the hydraulic press industry has only been around 50 years. Before 1949, China was a semi-feudal and semi-colonial country and was bullied by the powers. It had no independent industrial system or hydraulic press manufacturing industry at all. There were only a few small hydraulic presses for repair in China. After 1949, the first three years belonged to the period of economic recovery. Since 1952, the implementation of the first five-year plan, China quickly established an independent and complete industrial system, and was able to gradually design and manufacture domestically-made automobiles, locomotives, ships, and power generation equipment. , Smelting and rolling equipment, airplanes, rockets and even sophisticated aerospace equipment. These have greatly promoted and required the rapid development of various hydraulic presses.
From 1957" to '1958, China began to design and manufacture the first batch of 25000kN medium-sized forging hydraulic presses. Take Beijing as an example. Before liberation, Beiping was just a consumer city without its own manufacturing industry. In order to completely change this At the beginning of 1957, under the leadership of the Beijing Municipal Ministry of Industry and the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Machinery, a group of key technical equipment was established in a city-wide collaboration. One of the important projects was a 25000kN forging hydraulic press.
In the early 1960s, in Shanghai and Northeast China, a 120MN-class large forging hydraulic press was established, which became an important symbol and event in the development history of hydraulic presses in China, reflecting the national spirit of self-reliance and hard work of the Chinese people.
In the middle and late 1960s, China successively designed and manufactured a batch of large hydraulic presses with higher technical requirements, including 300MN non-ferrous metal die forging hydraulic press, 120MN non-ferrous metal extrusion hydraulic press, 80MN ferrous metal die forging hydraulic press, etc. .
Since the 1970s, China has begun to export several forging hydraulic presses of various tonnages to foreign countries, the largest of which is a 60MN forging hydraulic press. So far, China has not only completely established its own hydraulic press design and manufacturing industry, but also has reached a very high level.
Since the 1980s, with China's reform and opening up, the national economy has developed rapidly, and the design and manufacturing level of hydraulic presses has also greatly developed.