The working principle of electric welding machine

Update:01 Jul 2022

It uses the high-temperature arc generated when the pos […]

It uses the high-temperature arc generated when the positive and negative poles are short-circuited instantaneously to melt the solder on the electrode and the material to be welded to achieve the purpose of combining them. The structure of the electric welding machine is very simple. To put it bluntly, it is a high-power transformer that converts 220V AC into a low-voltage, high-current power supply, which can be either DC or AC. The welding transformer has its own characteristics, that is, it has the characteristics of a sharp drop in voltage. After the electrode is ignited, the voltage drops. In the adjustment of the working voltage of the electric welding machine, in addition to the one-time 220/380 voltage conversion, the secondary coil also has a tap conversion voltage. ...The electric welding machine is generally a high-power transformer, which is made of the principle of inductance. The inductance will produce a huge voltage change when it is turned on and off. It uses the high-voltage arc generated when the positive and negative poles are short-circuited instantaneously. To melt the solder on the electrode. To achieve the purpose of combining them. A voltage is applied between the electrode and the workpiece, the arc is ignited by scratching or contacting, and the energy of the arc is used to melt the electrode and heat the base metal.

The current and voltage are stepped down by the three-phase main transformer, rectified by the thyristor element, and the output current is controlled by changing the phase of the thyristor trigger angle. The current signal is taken out from the shunt at the DC output end of the rectifier as a current negative feedback signal. As the DC output current increases, the negative feedback also increases, the conduction angle of the thyristor decreases, and the output current and voltage decrease, thereby obtaining a reduced external characteristic. . The thrust circuit is to increase the output current when the output voltage is lower than 15V, especially in the case of a short circuit, the external characteristics of external drag are formed, so that the electrode is not easy to stick. The arc ignition circuit is to increase the given voltage for a short time every time the arc is started, so that the arc ignition current is larger and the arc is easy to start.

From the above description, it can be known that the circuit is in a short-circuit state when the arc is started, the voltage drops sharply, and the current needs to be large; after the arc is started, the arc needs to be stabilized. At this time, the solution of the electrode and the tank is still in a short-circuit transition state, and the voltage still drops. The current is still large; after the transition is completed, it is in a normal welding state, the voltage rises and the current drops.

The arc starting current is the maximum current that the welding machine can output when the welding arc starts.

The thrust current is that when the molten iron transitions in a short circuit during welding, the welding machine superimposes an additional current, so that the molten iron transitions stably and is not easy to stick.

Welding current is the working current provided by the welding machine during normal welding.

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